What is Perseroan Terbatas (PT)
PT is an acronym for Perseroan Terbatas, a term that represents a limited liability company in Indonesia. A Perseroan Terbatas (PT) is a commercial entity constituted and acting in accordance with commercial law.
Any Indonesian business that receives foreign investment directly must take the form of PT. The Indonesian Perseroan Terbatas can be classified as PT open, closed, domestic, foreign, individual or general public. Most are a limited liability company (LLC) offering shares to the public.
DISTRIBUTION of the Persian Terbatas (PT)
An investor in an Indonesian limited liability company (LLC) or PT is only responsible for the amount of his initial investment. PT’s articles of association describe the ownership of the shares and the part of the overall ownership of the shares.
Indonesian law governs the types of businesses that can operate as a Terero de Perséro (PT). The governance and administration of Terero de Perseroan (PT) are managed on a regional basis and the rules may vary for each region of the country. The licensing requirements for each company will depend on the type of work in which they are involved. These are English-speaking equivalents, specific rules and guidelines are in accordance with Indonesian law regarding commercial entities.
Countries often define their business in different terms and with different stipulations. Although a Perseroan Terbatas reflects the United States limited liability company, there are fundamental differences attributed to the applicable laws. In comparison, a PT in Indonesia is the equivalent of a public limited company (PLC) in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.
Types of TP in Indonesia
There are a few basic types of Perseroan Terbatas (PT) in Indonesia. An open PT is an LLC that offers actions to the public. Typically, this type of LLC shares the ownership of a holder who is not in the name of the company, and therefore buying and selling shares is relatively straightforward.
A closed PT is an LLC that only offers private shares and restricts the sale of those shares to specific individuals or groups. This limitation is more common for family and operating businesses.
A national PT is an LLC that physically exists and offers its products or services in Indonesia. These types of PT must strictly comply with the rules governing companies in the Republic of Indonesia.
An individual PT is an LLC with shares that have been issued and owned by one person. This person, usually the owner or director of the business, has exclusive authority in this type of business structure.
A foreign PT is an LLC that is incorporated and subject to the laws of a foreign country. When an external company establishes a PT in Indonesia, the company is also subject to Indonesian laws and regulations.
A consumer PT is an LLC that has a free share ownership system. Any entity can hold shares in this type of company. The structure is similar to an open PT. However, the shares of this type of company can also be listed on the stock exchange.