What is a distribution in kind?
A distribution in kind, also called distribution in kind, is a payment made in the form of securities or other property rather than cash. A distribution in kind can be made in several different situations, including the payment of a stock dividend or an inheritance, or the taking of securities from a tax-deferred account. He may also refer to the transfer of an asset to a beneficiary on the option of liquidating the position and transferring the cash.
Understanding distributions in kind
Investors can invest in a business by buying bonds or stocks. Bonds earn investors a form of interest payment. The shares pay investors a dividend and an appreciation in the share price. A dividend or a share buyback is a distribution of cash to investors.
In general, companies that are doing well pay healthy and growing dividends. These companies also buy back shares. Companies with declining profits may be forced to buy back shares or pay dividends with borrowed funds. Another alternative is to distribute dividends in kind.
Key points to remember
- In-kind distributions are payments made in an alternative format, such as property or stocks, instead of cash.
- Corporations and organizations use in-kind distributions to minimize their tax liabilities and bypass the capital gains tax resulting from an increase in the value of the assets.
- Taxes may be applicable in certain cases, such as distribution in kind linked to real estate transactions.
Distributions in kind are not always in cash
Not all distributions are made in cash; some are made in kind. The most common form of in-kind distribution occurs when a company pays a dividend in shares rather than in cash. Distribution in kind can also be used for tax reasons. In certain situations, the direct receipt of a valued asset may result in a lower tax bill compared to the sale of the asset and the receipt of the value of the asset in cash.
Some funds pay distributions in kind to investors after a certain threshold. If an investor redeems shares of the fund beyond the threshold, the rest of the redemption value is paid in kind with shares of the fund. The reason for this is to prevent large tax hits in the event of high repayment activity.
Benefits of in-kind distributions
Distributions in kind are not only beneficial to the business. Investors in tax-deferred accounts like to receive distributions in kind as they help reduce taxes. People who inherit shares generally receive them in kind for this reason. Investors with individual pension plans may also receive distributions in kind. This includes the minimum distributions required. In fact, distributions in kind can be used for an entire RMD. This means that people can withdraw the actual stocks and bonds from the account as a distribution without liquidation.
Investors who wish to keep fully invested accounts may find this option attractive. In-kind distributions are also good for stocks that are undervalued or likely to increase significantly. This allows the investor to record the profit from the appreciation of the stock price as a capital gain rather than as ordinary income, which is usually taxed at a higher rate.
Distributions in kind are also a preferred method of distributing the proceeds of the venture capital and private equity industry. Instead of liquidating assets and making cash distributions to limited partners, the funds give them equivalent securities to avoid capital gains tax on the taxes paid.
In-kind distributions in real estate and trusts
Distributions in kind for real estate transactions cannot be exempt from capital gains tax. The company or organization that distributes goods in kind instead of cash must always pay capital gains on the appreciation of its price. A similar case exists for transfers made to estates or trusts by a settlor.
Asset transfers by constituents are taxable and they are required to report capital gains or losses from taxes on their tax returns.